Manual Somali Reader

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Articles

  1. From Mogadishu to Toronto
  2. Alternative Names
  3. Somali Rebellion
  4. USAID – Somalia

  • Epidemiology and Culture?
  • Betrayal In Blood?
  • Good to Know;
  • Evolutionary games in natural, social, and virtual worlds?

Judicial branch : This entry includes three subfields. The highest court s subfield includes the name s of a country's highest level court s , the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts.

From Mogadishu to Toronto

The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing j. Political parties and leaders : This entry includes a listing of significant political parties, coalitions, and electoral lists as of each country's last legislative election, unless otherwise noted.

International organization participation : This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way. Diplomatic representation in the US : This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery address, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations. Such ambassadors fulfill all diplomatic functions except meeting with or appearing at functions attended by the president until such time as they formally present their credentials at a White Hou.

Diplomatic representation from the US : This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations. Box Village Market Nairobi, Kenya. FAX: 20 Flag description : This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written.

Alternative Names

The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags. National symbol s : A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity.

Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one.

Somali Rebellion

National anthem : A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition.

Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.

Government - note : This entry includes miscellaneous government information of significance not included elsewhere. Economy :: Somalia. Economy - overview : This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization.

It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends. GDP purchasing power parity : This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity PPP exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States in the year noted.

This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measur. GDP official exchange rate : This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.

The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output.

USAID – Somalia

Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-. GDP - real growth rate : This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent. The growth rates are year-over-year, and not compounded. GDP - composition, by end use : This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin : This entry shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry.

Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not prod. Agriculture - products : This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important. Industries : This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.

Industrial production growth rate : This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production includes manufacturing, mining, and construction. Labor force : This entry contains the total labor force figure. Labor force - by occupation : This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation.

Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than percent if the data are incomplete and may range from percent due to rounding. Unemployment rate : This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs.

Substantial underemployment might be noted. Population below poverty line : National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations.

For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.

http://brainwavetv.com/baleb-cell-phone.php Household income or consumption by percentage share : Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption.

The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons. Budget : This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i. Taxes and other revenues : This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP.

Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises. Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons acr. Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits relat. Public debt : This entry records the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency.

Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings. Fiscal year : This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month.

All yearly references are for the calendar year CY unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year FY. Inflation rate consumer prices : This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.

Central bank discount rate : This entry provides the annualized interest rate a country's central bank charges commercial, depository banks for loans to meet temporary shortages of funds. Commercial bank prime lending rate : This entry provides a simple average of annualized interest rates commercial banks charge on new loans, denominated in the national currency, to their most credit-worthy customers. Current account balance : This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments such as pension funds and worker remittances to and from the rest of the world during the period specified.

Exports : This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f. Exports - partners : This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. Oman Exports - commodities : This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. Imports : This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c. Imports - commodities : This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Imports - partners : This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. China Reserves of foreign exchange and gold : This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.

Debt - external : This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services. Stock of direct foreign investment - at home : This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated.

Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. Exchange rates : This entry provides the average annual price of a country's monetary unit for the time period specified, expressed in units of local currency per US dollar, as determined by international market forces or by official fiat. The International Organization for Standardization ISO alphabetic currency code for the national medium of exchange is presented in parenthesis.

Closing daily exchange rates are not presented in The World Factbook, but are used to convert stock values - e. Energy :: Somalia. Electricity access : This entry provides information on access to electricity.